[][src]Module libra_crypto::hkdf

An implementation of HKDF, the HMAC-based Extract-and-Expand Key Derivation Function for the Libra project based on RFC 5869.

The key derivation function (KDF) is intended to support a wide range of applications and requirements, and is conservative in its use of cryptographic hash functions. In particular, this implementation is compatible with hash functions that output 256 bits or more, such as SHA256, SHA3-256 and SHA512.

HKDF follows the "extract-then-expand" paradigm, where the KDF logically consists of two modules: the first stage takes the input keying material (the seed) and "extracts" from it a fixed-length pseudorandom key, and then the second stage "expands" this key into several additional pseudorandom keys (the output of the KDF). For convenience, a function that runs both steps in a single call is provided. Note that along with an initial high-entropy seed, a user can optionally provide salt and app-info byte-arrays for extra security guarantees and domain separation.

Applications

HKDF is intended for use in a wide variety of KDF applications (see Key derivation function), including: a) derivation of keys from an origin high-entropy master seed. This is the recommended approach for generating keys in Libra, especially when a True Random Generator is not available. b) derivation of session keys from a shared Diffie-Hellman value in a key-agreement protocol. c) combining entropy from multiple sources of randomness, such as entropy collected from system events, user's keystrokes, /dev/urandom etc. The combined seed can then be used to generate cryptographic keys for account, network and transaction signing keys among the others. d) hierarchical private key derivation, similarly to Bitcoin's BIP32 protocol for easier key management. e) hybrid key generation that combines a master seed with a PRNG output for extra security guarantees against a master seed leak or low PRNG entropy.

Recommendations

Salt HKDF can operate with and without random 'salt'. The use of salt adds to the strength of HKDF, ensuring independence between different uses of the hash function, supporting "source-independent" extraction, and strengthening the HKDF use. The salt value should be a random string of the same length as the hash output. A shorter or less random salt value can still make a contribution to the security of the output key material. Salt values should be independent of the input keying material. In particular, an application needs to make sure that salt values are not chosen or manipulated by an attacker.

Application info Key expansion accepts an optional 'info' value to which the application assigns some meaning. Its objective is to bind the derived key material to application- and context-specific information. For example, 'info' may contain a protocol number, algorithm identifier, child key number (similarly to BIP32), etc. The only technical requirement for 'info' is that it be independent of the seed.

Which function to use: extract, expand or both? Unless absolutely sure of what they are doing, applications should use both steps — if only for the sake of compatibility with the general case.

Example

Run HKDF extract-then-expand so as to return 64 bytes, using 'salt', 'seed' and 'info' as inputs.

use libra_crypto::hkdf::Hkdf;
use sha2::Sha256;

// some bytes required for this example.
let raw_bytes = [2u8; 10];
// define salt
let salt = Some(&raw_bytes[0..4]);
// define seed - in production this is recommended to be a 32 bytes or longer random seed.
let seed = [3u8; 32];
// define application info
let info = Some(&raw_bytes[4..10]);

// HKDF extract-then-expand 64-bytes output
let derived_bytes = Hkdf::<Sha256>::extract_then_expand(salt, &seed, info, 64);
assert_eq!(derived_bytes.unwrap().len(), 64)

Structs

Hkdf

Structure representing the HKDF, capable of HKDF-Extract and HKDF-Expand operations, as defined in RFC 5869.

Enums

HkdfError

An error type for HKDF key derivation issues.